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What Is Ehsas Kafalat Program 2021

What is the Ehsas Kafalat Program?

The PML-N government had initiate the Ehsas Kafalat Program which was launch in 2005 by then What is the Ehsas Kafalat Program?

Amina Sabtain (19) was deprive of a proper burial after she died of severe burns, one year ago. The police were unable to probe the (Photo:

File) Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif has announce an early-release scheme for the victims of

extrajudicial killings in the metropolis under his care. The Ehsas-e-Kafalat (Justice for the Victim) program will be initiated shortly and will benefit 52 beneficiaries.

How does it help women in Pakistan?

Ehsas Kafalat is the world’s first social safety net program for women. The annual scheme was launch in 2010 by Prime Minister Yusuf Raza Gillani.

A statement issued by the prime minister’s media wing state that under the scheme, each woman will be entitled to receive a monthly

stipend of Rs 2,000 (Rs 1,500 for an SC/BC family) which is deposite directly into her bank account on the 7th of every month.

The scheme is expecte to help more than 1 million women in the country by enhancing their financial independence. Moreover,

it will save the government Rs 20 billion per year, the spokesperson added. About Empowerment of Women

Empowerment of women was part of the vision of the government of Pakistan.

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Who are the beneficiaries of this program?

Many deserving and poor women across the country will be the beneficiaries of this program.

Here are the names of the How to get the application form? Steps to apply for Ehsas Kafalat Program 1.

Go to link on www.tribalwomen.org 2. Go to ‘Click here for the TSP/MP Stream’ 3. Click on ‘TSP MP Stream Application’ and read the instructions carefully 4.

The application form will be display in pdf 5. Read carefully the instructions carefully 6.

Submit the application form in the prescrib format and pay the due fees 7.

Take a print out of your application form and then take a print out of the submit What are the benefits of this program?

1. This will serve to create employment opportunities for women of tribal 2.

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What is the Ehsas Kafalat Program?

This will enable families to spend on basic necessities. Alpena had written to the PM to ask him

to extend the program to her town in Kashmir. “I I write this to PM Modi during his previous visit to Kashmir,”

Alpena had say. A Special Scheme for Kashmiri Pandits Earlier in May this year, BJP president

Amit Shah announced that the party has decided to expand the current Ehsas Kafalat Program to Kashmiri Pandits.

The BJP has also extend the Rajiv Gandhi Jeevandayee Pratinidhi Sabha Scheme, giving out ₹3,000 each to 14 lakh Dalit families.

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How does it help women in Pakistan?

The Ehsas Kafalat program will help empower women across Pakistan.

It will provide women basic economic freedom and be a tool that will provide them with an opportunity to progress in their lives.

These monthly stipends will enable women to fulfill their basic economic needs, provide them

with a security net to build a sustainable future for themselves and provide them with a tool to combat sexual harassment and violence.

Every woman deserves basic economic freedom and a level playing field and in Pakistan this basic freedom is something that remains elusive for many.

Girls in Pakistan face various types of harassment that often lead to physical and sexual abuse. It is a global epidemic that affects both girls and boys.

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Who are the beneficiaries of this program?

This program is initiated and implemented by Sindh government.

The federal government is monitoring the program on the parameters of enrolment and targets achieved.

How many women are eligible for this program? There are two categories of people eligible to be considered for the program.

Are children eligible to be considered for this program? Where and how can I apply? You can register with the district staff of each taluka who is responsible for registration.

How do I reach the district staff? Sindh’s district office of Umerkot can be contacted by calling 924-6341/634-300.

– A woman who is not a citizen and lives in a rural area is not eligible. – Single women living with the families of her own husband,

children or others are not eligible. Women are allowed to work and receive the stipend without having to register with the Bank.

They can use the money from the accounts to run their households. Who Can Apply for This Program?

Conclusion

In this day and age, our country is standing at crossroads, with most economic, social

and political sectors in tatters, primarily because of a lack economic.

 

Apply Now

WHAT IS AN IDEOLOGY ?

WHAT IS AN IDEOLOGY?
The term ldeologyy is a complex phenomena in the study of Social Sciences on which a great deal of controversy exists among scholars on its meanings and definition. The French Philosopher Autoine Destul de Tracy used the word ideologie
during French Revolution and defined it as the Science of ldeas meaning thereby as the study of the origins, evolution and nature of iideas.’

To Karl Marx, ideology means the ideas of the rulingJunta who seeks to perpetuate the prevailing order of Capitalism and their own privileged position. Karl Manneheim/ to some extent took a similar view of ideology by defining it as the conservative, self-seeking and biased views of the dominant class in society.

In view of the different approaches towards the meaning of an ideology, a working definition can, however, be evolved to reach at a Conclusion. Ideology is a different form of those comprehensive patterns of moral beliefs about man, society and the universe in relation to man and society. Ideology is often understood as a
way of thinking about the cultural and social
programme of a political movement launched
to emancipate a suppressed group from the
exploitation of a more dominant social class.
The (ideologies) deal with idea or abstract
speculations and are a systematic set of arguments and beliefs used to justify an existing or desired social order. “A political ideology is a system of beliefs that explain and justifies a preferred political order, either existing or proposed and offers a strategy (institutions, processes programmes) for its attainment”.
The ideologies contain a set of proposals about human nature and society. These proposals Conditions, approaches and understanding of a social and political order and provide a basis for the accomplishment of a desired social system. “An ideology offers an interpretation of the past, and an explanation of the present and a vision of
the future.*

HOW IDEOLOGY EMERGES?
Ideologies often reflect theway of thinking of a nation or a social group who has been rejected a social position which otherwise would have been its due place in the society. It grows amongst the dissatisfied and disgruntled group of society as a challenge to the prevailing social set up. The ideologies are propagated as a systematic of logical ideas which programme Convincingly explain the human destinies.
The ideologies are highly integrated around
one or few pre-eminent values, such as salvation, equality or ethnic purity. They lay emphasis on their form, distinctiveness and never intend to follow outlooks, creeds and other ideologies existing in the same society Ideologies tend to arise in times of crisis and social stress.They originate and get support among those sections of society who have rejected the prevailing conditions. “An ideology emerges when people feel strongly that they are being mistreated
under an existing order, when their statuus
is threatened by fundamental changes occurring in the society, and when the prevailing ideology no longer satisfies them This state of affair drives the ignored and maltreated groups towards other ideologies, which show them a new horizon of better life.

IMPORTANCE OF AN IDEOLOGY
ldeology is a motivating force for a nation, which is striving hard to bring stability and homogeneity to its nationhood. It provides the cement-binding Scattered groups in a society and brings them closer to each other on a common platform. ldeologies impel their adherents to follow a joint line of action for the accomplishment of their goal. ldeologies give shape to the revolutions and give birth to new cultures and Civilizations. They stress on their adherents to insist on the realization of their ideals through total transformation of society.
base to the Absolute and firm individual obedience is demanded of those who accept it and an unquestioned agreement with each other on the ideals is the most vital pre-requisite of an
Ideology.

Corruption and the measures to curb corruption

“It is said that power corrupts, but actualy it’s more true that power attracts the corruptible. The sane are usualhy attracted by other things than power.” -David Brin
Pakistan is the 124 least corrupt nation out of 180 countries, according to the 2020 Corruption Perceptions Index reported by Transparency International. Corruption Rank in Pakistan averaged 108.29 from 2000 until 2020, reaching an all time high of 144 in 2005 and a record low of 39 in 1995 .The political will of the government to fight corruption is lacking which has resulted in the Supreme
Court of Pakistan to take suo moto action against mega corruption in NICL, Pakistan Steel, Rental Power Plants. The CPI 2010 reveals that corruption in Pakistan is increasing, while in Bangladesh it is decreasing. Bangladesh was perceived to be the most corrupt country in 2001, 2002 and 2003 and its ranking in 2010 is the 39 most corrupt country. Reduced corruption has paid dividends to Bangladesh whose annual GDP growth last year was over 59%, while Pakistan’s GDP growth last year was near 2.4 %. Delay in formation of an Independent Accountability Commission by the parliament may further aggravate the situation.

The word “Corruption” has its origin in a Latin verb “corruptus” meaning “to break”. Literally, it means a broken object”. In simple words, corruption means “the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit.” Conceptually, corruption is a form of behaviour which departs from ethics, morality, tradition, law and civic virtue. The term corruption has various definitions. The United Nations Manual on Anti-Corruption, the Transparency International, and the multilateral financial institutions like the World Bank and Asian Development Bank define corruption as, “abuse of public office for private gains The National Anti Corruption Strategy (NACS) has defined corruption as “a behaviour on the part of office holders in the public or private sector whereby they improperly and unlawfully
enrich themselves and/or those close to them, or induce others to do so, by misusing the position which they are placed.”

Section 9 of the National Accountability Ordinance 1999 has defined corruption and corrupt practices in a comprehensive manner. It has enlisted about twelve different shades of corruption.legal gratifications, bribery, extortion, abuse of office, fraud, cheating and criminal breach of trust are some of the corrupt practices mentioned in the NAO 1999 (Annex A). Starting with the Prevention
of Corruption Act 1947, there are about sixty pieces of enactments and rules that deal with offences of Corruption and corrupt practices in Pakistan (Annex B). The most comprehensive detinition of Corruption” can be found at the web site of the Global Infrastructure Anti Corruption Center (gLACC)  It says “In its wider sense, corruption includes one or more of Dribery, extortion, fraud, deception, collusion, cartels, abuse of power, embezzlement, trading in influence and money laundering.

The primary responsibility of ensuring the culture of sound management or what we generally call good governance lies directly on shoulders of the civil administration. on shoulders of the civil administration. In a democratic dispensation, the process of accountability starts at the first stage of the “conversion process” the elections, which is the connecting link between the rulers and the ruled. It is at this stage that the foundation of sound and transparent political culture could be laid. The electorate ought to carefully
demonstrate their first choice (right to vote) of the process and to exercise their right only under the dictates of their conscience. In return, the rulers who are the custodians of the political environs ought to honour the trust reposed in them and to judiciously exercise the powers they derive from that trust. In order to ensure consistency and sustainability of an accountable, transparent and open political process, it is mperative to keep the connecting link intact.

Corruption is more prevalent because lack of accountability and regulation. If money that the government receives is going in their pockets rather than being spent on the people who need it, on their education, health and so on, then the consequences are obvious that many people do not pay taxes because they do not trust the government to spend it on the people, they think they are corrupt
and the money would just disappear. And so this creates a vicious circle. People do not see the govemment doing anything to help them, so they think it’s a waste of time to pay taxes. The govemment doesn’t get any money from taxes and so can’t do anything to help people.

Across the board application of rule of law, merit based appointments and easy access to justice is the only solution to save Pakistan from corruption, which is responsible for poverty, inflation, terrorism, illiteracy, lack of electricity and hording of essential food commodities.
The major reason of fast creeping corruption are political instability, poverty, unequal structure of society, unemployment, lack of accountability, weak political institutions and absence of rule of law. Resultant they are affectıng political stability, equal distribution of resources and power, confidence of local and foreign investors and political institutions.

The basic reason for corruption is low salaries as everyone is finding a way to better their living standard as much as they can; it’s also a human nature that he has everything more and more. So mostly corruption is to be seen where there are people having fewer salaries they use corrupt ways to achieve the goal. It is true that they do not have any other way to fulfill their wants.

Incompetent judiciary in terms of not bringing the culprits in to the gallows of law and absence of bringing the corrupt politicians and policy makers to the books is another decisive factor in today’s sory state of affairs. In the same manner the unnecessary delay in deciding the cases of comuption iS a clear explanation of the adage: the justice delayed is justice denied.

On independence, Pakistan inherited weak political institutions. Performance of these institutions in the country over the years further damaged the cultuze of transparency and accountability. admittedly, efforts at establishing a strong politicai dispensation have been facing frustrations head on but U.ese institutions have also failed to capitalize upon the available opportunities. Their internal democratic traditions are still weak and non transparent. Due to lack of respect for participative values, the mainstream political parties are generally dominated by a single person.

The menace of corruption has links to a multitude of vices. Its roots are linked to injustice, mistrust, suspicion, extremism and terrorist activities. It creates a sense of insecurity, exacerbates poverty and adds to the misfortune of the vulnerable segments of the society. It also instills a sense hopelessness and despondency arid threatens the strength of good values which have been established
over centuries of civilized struggle.

The corporate sector is also littered with failures due to corrupt practices. Scandals in the corporate sector are subjects ot headiines in the media. Wrong practices seem too common, and unacceptable behaviour has become a nomal practice. Corporate governance has been practiced only in form and not substance. Chairmen, chiet executive officers and directors are appointed on the basis
af nolitical and personal clout. Merit is a less ViSible commodity. Thus politicization and inefficiency at the top management levels has resulted in steep decline in the quality of output. Illegal convergence of interest has encouraged insider trading which causes frustration and setback to the genuine investor. Real demand and supply factors have negigibie role in shaping the market behaviour which is predominantly controlled by the middleman. Prices are determined by unscrupulous profiteers through the middleman mafia. Counterfeit products have flooded the markets. Consumers are let with no option but to live with inferior quality stuff. There is no effective consumer’s rights protection regime. The monopoly control mechanism has turned out to be of least effect. The Monopoly Control Authority has to be improved to play an effective role in curbing the menace that has infected the corporate sector.
Need and greed are cited as the reasons of corruption and corrupt practices. Need as a reason is applied to low paid employees specially those entrusted with service delivery powers and public contact. Corruption occurs out of compulsion, as those indulging in corruption are in need of the basic necessities and lack access to social entitlement. However, need very easily merges with greed once
need is taken as a justification by those indulging in corruption and corrupt practices. It is because of this fact that corruption is linked to poverty which is termed as corruption of need. Absence of an ethical base in societal attitudes is also cited as one of the root causes of corruption. Corruption and corrupt practices are indicative of breaches in the governance edifice. They pose serious threats to the sanctity of ethical and democratic values and weaken administrative, political and social institutions. The issues of corruption, poverty and governance are cross cutting. These issues put together and form an integral part of the development literature. Recently, the terms governance and good governance are being profusely used in such literature. Good governance remains at the forefront of every aspect of our life, be that political, social or economic. Governance has to be good in its manifestation, and if it is not so, it is certainly no governance at all. The mere Suffix or prefix of the term ‘good’ does not serve the purpose.

The essential components of good governance are the rule of law, accountability, transparency and predictability. The rule of law means equal application of law, equal protection by law and equality before law. In the absence of the rule of law, institutions get weak and become hatcheries for Corrupt practices. The realization of the goals of good governance and prosperity becomes a myth.

According to the findings of National Anti-Corruption Strategy and the National Corruption Ferception Survey 2006 carried out by Transparency International, major causes of corruption in Pakistan are as follows:
(a)Lack of effective Internal accountability mechanism
(b) Discretionary powers and their flagrant abuse by the public office holders
(c) Absence of and weakness of the watch-dog agencies.
(d) Political leaders’ incompetence and betrayal of public trust with penchant for self-enrichment.
(e) Elected government’s perpetual failure to develop proper ethical and business standards for the public and private sector
(f) Lack of transparency in the government’s decision-making process
(g) Lengthy and cumbersome procedures in the executive system
(h) Weaknesses in the judicial system literate, apathetic or ignorant populace with inadequate discernment of political choices
Power of influential people

(k) Inadequate wage envelope

Many people in Pakistan believe that much of the development and a significant portion of the operations allocations are lost due to bribery and other related illegal and unethical activities. The extreme poverty and lack of infrastructure and basic services in the rural areas ot Sindh and Balochistan is in part fueled by bribery, influence peddling, extortion, and abuse of power. The people of Pakistan and the international donors must rise to the occasion and start pressuring the Pakistan government to curtail corruption and to improve governance. Failure to do so in a timely manner will continue to frustrate poor people and make them weary of the current democratic system and drive them to extremism.
There are many example of corruption. A government official or government Minister or his/her business partner receiving money in exchange for awarding a contract, job, promotion or approving invoices for payment (an example that involves Bribery and Abuse of Power and may involve Collusion). A policeman receiving money to drop charges against some one or receiving bribe
from some one to arrest another person is an example of bribery and misuse of power.

A contractor who uses sub-standard material in the construction ofa large public project such auniversity building, a road by-pass, or a village road. An inspecting engineer who receives bribe to ignore the use defective material and/or workmanship and approves the project for payment. A senior manager in a public or private organization giving a job to a friend or relative bypassing a proper
selection process 1S an example that involves Abuse of Power and Trading-in-influence).

A teacher who rarely goes to school to teach but collects his/her salary regularly. A bad village leader (waderojillegally occupies a school and uses it as guest house is an example that involves Bribery, Abuse of Power, Fraud, Deception, and Collusion.

General perceptions and actual public surveys about corruption show that Police, Power Sector, Judiciary, various Taxation departments (Custom duties, Income Tax), and irrigation department considered the most corruption prone departments in Pakistan.

According to a report, appointments in the police force are often based on political considerations. The, instances where conflicts of interest due to personal loyalties and family connections exist are numerous. Many complain that local landlords or urban groups with police support exploit poor people through extortion (bogus fines, etc.).

Some important areas affected by it are discussed as under:

1. The world economic forum’s Global Competitiveness Report (2007-08) identifies corruption as the 3rd greatest problem for companies doing business in Pakistan after government bureaucracy and poor infrastructure (Sala-i-Martin and Porter, 2008) It is
therefore a direct impediment in the way of the Direct Foreign Investment (DFI) which is so badly needed to generate economic activity, create employment, and support the dwindling foreign exchange reserves.
2. With an effective check on corruption national exchequer can easily gain nearly double of the annual allocations carmarked under Kerry Lugar Bill carrying strikingly harsh conditions for national sovereignty and autonomy.
3. The cvcle is really vicious rampant corruption in tax and custom and excise collection and. WAPDA dues and costly public sector purchases, and inefficient major public sector entities like PIA, Railway, Steel Mill etc. cause a major deficit for the government every year in term of resource generation and expenditure that makes the government borrow from IMF and other foreign and domestic resources which through increased debt repayments broadens the gap and compels the govermment to increase the price of the utilities like electricity, gas, CNG and petroleum. That takes a heavy toll from the people of Pakistan. Resultantly corruption which is done at far away and much higher places from the common citizens has a direct and deep impact on their lives. Thus act of corruption, whether direct or indirect, close or remote is not innocuous for common man.

4. The country has lost many years of development effort because of eating up of development funds at a very large scale and because of over charging for almost every item of work.

5. Other than the government offices and public sector, corruption has thoroughly permeated the political arenas. Party tickets are openly bought and sold and so does the transaction flourish for hunting or hounding the voters. This has resulted in the dominance of political scene by the drug barons, black marketers, hoarders and speculators who not only have in many cases snatched away the true representative character from the democratic process in the country but who make good their investment in the election process through massive corruption while in power and add to the miseries and the cost of living of the common man.

6. Still worse is its impact on religious circles who sell fake degrees to the needy politicians with impunity, show fake entries of students to get more Zakat money and sell religion edicts on need basis. At times it appears that the whole structure has been soiled and has replaced scholarship as it is becoming increasingly difficult to find a genuine religious scholar from any quarters.

7. Rampant trends of corruption have also badly affected the business ethics in the country which is devoid of any egalitarianism. Hood winking the regulators, stock piling, hoarding. and black marketing are the order of the day and individual business man, business firms, business groups and sometimes a whole industry is found pegged in these malpractices.

8. And when corruption affects the institution of the last resort that is the judiciary the country loses its track and direction. Absence of a fair judicial system does not affect the individual litigant alone it affects the whole economy where domestic and foreign investments shy away for fear of usurpation and misappropriation.

9. The worst of all is a break down of law and order because of pervasive corruption in police and lower judiciary. The influential, the wealthy and the mighty have a fair chance of getting away with what ever they do if they pay the right price at the right stage. This had lead to increased incidence of crimes of all nature and at all levels.

10. In short the unbridled coruption has negatively impacted all spheres of activity in the country and the whole society has suffered serious blows to its social fabric and working environment.

Most experts think that corruption is one of the most difficult problems in Pak:stan’s society. lts npact on country’s towns and villages is extremely profound and poses long term threat to its culture, Cconomics, and general well-being of provinces such as Sindh. The following are some of steps and methods at grass roots and governnment levels that have helped to curb corruption in some countries
particularly in South East Asia, where once corruption was as rampant as it is now in Pakistan:
Increase salaries of government officials and workers in line with the remuneration prevalent in private sector of Pakistan.
Persons who can clearly see the damage that is being caused by corruption in Pakistan must speak up. They should discuss, debate, and voice their concerns openly with friends and family They should help create a culture where corruption is looked down. The virtue of being honest and simple living should be lauded and only the persons who posses such qualities be accepted as the
role models.

The media should take a lead in launching anti-corruption campaigns. They should conduct investigations and report cases of corruption supported by facts report on estimated damage done and identity people who are involved in such cases. Authorities that provide funding for projects should encourage whistle blowing and provide monetary and other awards to those whose reports on corruption proven to be correct. Authorities should maintain black-lists of those officials and agencies that are known to engage
corrupt practices and should keep them away assignments that involve public projects and services. Authorities should not shy away from prosecuting senior civilian and military officials and political leaders who engage in corruption to set examples.
The political parties of Pakistan should have policies that shun any leaders and workers who engage in corrupt practices.
All institutions including political parties should have policies that force those officials to temporarily resign when credible allegations of corruption surface until those allegations are proven to be false in a court of law.

At the heart of Pakistan’s recent anti-corruption drive are country’s National Anti-Corrupton Strategy (NACS) launched in 2002, the National Accountability Ordinance of 1999 (amended 2002) and the National Accountability Bureau the agency charged with the implementation and overall coordination of the NACS and the Ordinance. A general discussion on these is out of the scope of this
04 answer (there is a bulk of information on these general reform efforts widely available and some good resources are listed in Part IlI of this answer).

In this section, reform initiatives in some of the specific sectors (perceived to be most affected by corruption) are listed. Namely, efforts in areas of police and law enforcement, judiciary and legal profession and public procurement are discussed. The second section of Part II lists some reform initiatives in other areas.

It is hoped that the reorganization outlined by the new Police Order of 2002 and the Police Complaints department will improve the functions of the police and provide relief to the ciizens. Reportedly, one of the first steps taken in the reorganization has been the separation of the police force into various branches, divisions, bureaus and sections. It is intended to help improve the efticieney Du
in fact may lead to more corruption and less efficiency due to non-cooperation or lack of coordination. The Police Order of 2002 has also outlined a format for setting up district Public Safety Commissions (PSC). The functions of such commissions will inter alia include investigations of complaints on excesses and neglect against police officers and encourage greater police-public participation. The
PSCS are to be set up within the Federal and Provincial Government and the District and Town Local Governments. There shall also be a National Public Safety Commission. Further, the Order makes provisions for setting up of federal and provincial police complaints authorities for enquiring into serious complaints against the members of Federal Law Enforcement Agencies. Other
measures provided for by the Order include the establishment of the Criminal Justice Coordination committee, to work on the improvement of the system as a whole and promote good practices, and of the National Police Management Board, to work on overall technical and human resource capacity building within the Police.

In 2002, the National Accountability Bureau as a part of its study in preparing the NAcs organized an international workshop, resulting in the stakeholders adopting a resolution related to ensuring transparency in Public Procurement in Pakistan. This resolution was incorporated in the NACS report and was approved by the Ministerial Cabinet and the President of Pakistan in October
2002. Amongst others, the recommendations provide that:

the Standard Procedures for Procurement of Works, Goods and Consultants should be revised by the Public Procurement Regulatory Authority. Either the World Bank or PEC by-laws should be uniformly implemented in all government and semi government departments till such time the PPRA prepares its own Guidelines;

to ensure transparency and public participation, the Transparency International-Pakistan tool Integrity Pact” should be made an integral part of all tenders;

for every new project, public hearings should be made mandatory for scrutiny of necessity of the project and for the environmental assessment, prior to concept clearance approval;

evaluation Committees for Pre-qualification and Award of Contracts must include at least two departmental members, and a minimum of three independent experts, (One each from the Pakistan Engineering Council, Institute of Chartered Accountants and FPCCI), and others.
An important part of the recommendations of the NACS is the incorporation of the TI Integrity Pacts in all contracts for goods and services where the estimated cost of the project is over Rupees 5 million for consultancy and over Rupees 50 million for Construction Contracts. This has been a major breakthrough in the efforts of TI-Pakistan whereby all major contracts will not only provide for the
“Integrity Pact” but also include all other recommendations, which have been put out in the NACS Document (outlined above). An example of the Integrity Pact in use is to be found in the Greater Karachi Water Supply Scheme (KII Project) project. An integrity pact, with a formal no-bribery Commitment, was signed by KWSB, consultant bidders and TI Pakistan. It resulted in a successful bid of Rs 62 million (S1.04m) against the reserved fees of Rs 249m (S42m). The project adopted the least costly selection method. The bidding process was monitored by Transparency International- Pakistan to ensure it is clean and transparent. In the event of a breach of the Integrity Pact, sanctions come into Iorce against the bidders and officials, including liability for damages, and blacklisting from future
Tenders. The procurement process is to be followed by monitoring of the contract by civil society, Specifically TI Pakistan. The Karachi government had expressed plans to apply the same transparent process to other projects.

It is suggested that some of the weaknesses may be addressed by the government’s Project to lmprove Financial Reporting and Auditing (PIFRA). The World Bank has carried out a country Financial Accountability Assessment in December 2003. Further, the ADB has approved a USS 204 million loan (part of a wider sequence) to support the Government of Punjab. Among other objectives,
the programme aims to improve the effectiveness and accountability of financial management by bringing in transparent and user-friendly budgets and accounts, and financial and procurement systems .

The Supreme Audit Institution of the country (the Auditor General’s office) is trying to reform itself by following international best practices, such as those of the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI), as part of its reform agenda. It has been noted that there Seems to be some progress in reorganizing the department with a view to adopting modern techniques
OI audit and reporting formats. It has initiated a capacity building program under the project to improve Financial Reporting and Auditing (PIFRA). Some of the other reform efforts include the design of diagnostic tools, such as a “Financial Government Rating Index (FGRI” and an “Internal Quality Rating (1QR) for its departments, etc.

The Government of Pakistan has undertaken a nunmber of steps to strengthen the Anti- Corruption Agencies, and has especially concentrated on the National Accountability Bureau for its reforms. The reforms include the creation of NAB as the sole Anti Corruption Agency at the Federal level; adding the functions of prevention through research and monitoring and public awareness and
coalition building with civil society to NAB’s mandate; provisions on appointments of ACAs (from the elected opposition members) and security of tenure of key office bearers of the ACA and others. Further reforms and restructuring are in the process.

The future of Pakistan and alleviation of poverty in rural areas of Pakistan is highly dependent on successful and completion of all development projects. This success is threatened by the evil of corruption that must be stopped on urgently before it is too late. The religious extremism, deteriorating economic conditions, and worsening living conditions are unnerving the people of rural Sindh and
Balochistan, who until now have refused to fall in the trap of extremism. It is imperative that all stakeholders including political parties, government officials, civil society organizations, private companies, donor agencies and common people recognize the carnage that current levels of corruption can do to the heartlands of Pakistan. They must form a grand coalition to stop the menace before it is
too late.

CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC)

The CPEC is a 3,000-kilometre network of roads, railways and pipelines to transport oil and  gas from Gwadar Port to Kashgar city, northwestern China’s Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, China Daily reports. China and Pakistan have agreed to build One Belt One Road project more commonly known as China-Pakistan Economic Corridor is expected to bring about both peace and prosperity in South Asia. This corridor will link between Kashgar in north-western China to Pakistan’s Gwadar port on the Arabian Sea near the border with Iran via roads, railways and pipelines. Expected cost was $46 billion but it increased up to S54 billion. There are many internal and external challenges for Pakistan government to implement this multi-dollars project. However, it is a game changer project which will transform the fate of Pakistan and will help Pakistan modernize. It will improve the economy and trade, enhance regional connectivity, overcome energy crises, develop infrastructure and establish people to people contacts in both the countries.

Proposed by Chinese Premier Li Keqiang during his visit to Pakistan in May 2013, the CPEC would act as a bridge for the new Maritime Silk Route that envisages linking three billion people in Asia, Africa and Europe .

The project links China’s strategy to develop its western region with Pakistan’s focus on boosting its economy, including the infrastructure construction of Gwadar Port, together with some energy cooperation and investment programs. It also involves road and railway construction including an upgrade of the 1,300-km Karakoram Highway, the highest paved international road in the world which connects China and Pakistan across the Karakoram mountains.

The CPEC will reduce China’s routes of oil and gas imports from Africa and the Middle East by thousands of kilometers, making Gwadar a potentially vital link in China’s supply chain.

With the support of China, Pakistan has gained significant importance not only in the region but the entire world. In recent years, both China and Pakistan have been making concerted efforts to revive the historic Silk Road which is one of the oldest known trade route in the world and will provide a route for trade from Kashgar (China) to Gwadar (Pakistan). China-Pakistan Economic Corridor plan will help Pakistan to become one of the most strategically important countries in the region. It will also provide an opportunity to China to build a naval base on Gwadar port that will increase influence of China in the region and also counter US influence in the Asia-Pacific region. The CBS News quoted some Western diplomats on Pakistan-China partnership. According to them,
China’s increasing economic engagement with Pakistan should be seen in the context of Beijing’s “efforts to counter the US efforts to deepen alliances around the Asia-Pacific region”.

The “One Belt One Road” concept has international strategic importance. The One Belt One Road initiative covers countries and regions with a total population of 4.4 billion and a total economic volume of US $21 trillion, 63 % and 29 %, respectively of the World.

According to the assessment of the Corridor, the plan is involved in laying the foundation for regional cooperation, improving economic growth, offering trade diversifications, investing in transportation, mining and energy sectors and creating political flexibility. It is a vision with world-changing implications, an unfolding plan that would weave much of Asia, Europe, Africa, Oceania and the Middle East much more closely together through a patchwork of diplomacy, new infrastructure and free trade zones.

The “One Belt one Road” Project consists of three routes, southern, central and northern route. The southern corridor begins from Guangzhou, which is the third largest city of China in South Central China. This route moves towards western parts of China and connects Kashgar with Pakistan at Khunjarab – a point from where China wants to link to Gwadar port in the Arabian Sea. It is the shortest and the most feasible option for China.

The second Chinese option is the Central Corridor that starts from Shanghai and links the country to Tashkent, Tehran and onwards to Bandar Imam Khomeini Port of Iran on the Persian Gulf. One of its branches goes up towards Europe. This is the longer route but could be an option, if Pakistan does not deliver on the timelines of completing its road network to become a beneficiary of the New Silk Road Economic Belt. The third Chinese option is the Northern Corridor that starts from Beijing, passes through Russia, and links it to European cities.

Recognizing the fact that regional integration is an inevitable measure to meet the demands of economically globalized world, the notion of Silk Road was reformulated and rephrased by China in 2013 under ‘one road, one belt’ initiative, i.e., economic belt along the Silk Road and the Maritime Silk Road.

Pakistan is a significant partner for China as it links China to the Central Asia, Southern Asian region and Middle East and its major deep-sea port Gwadar offers direct access to the Indian Ocean and beyond. Both countries have been working on enhancing their coordination and strategic communication to safeguard common interests. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) represents a new model of Pakistan and China cooperation which will serve against the backdrop of complex and changing regional and international situations.

China and Pakistan have developed strong bilateral trade and economic ties and cooperation over the years. China has gradually emerged as Pakistan’s major trading partner both in terms of exports and imports. Bilateral trade and commercial links between the two countries were established in January 1963 when both signed the first bilateral long-term trade agreement. Both countries signed Free Trade Agreement (FTA) on November 24, 2006 and implemented from July 1, 2007. Later on, both signed the FTA on Trade in Services on February 21, 2009 that became active from October 10 that year.

CPEC is an under-construction mega-project which will achieve the political and economic objectives through trade and development and will also strengthen the economic and trade cooperation between the two countries. This corridor will also be helpful in creating regional stability in South Asia.

After completion of the corridor, it will function as a primary gateway for trade between China and Africa and the Middle East. It is expected that this corridor will help cut the 12,000-kilometre route which Middle East oil supplies must now take to reach the Chinese ports.

This project will run through most of Pakistan starting from Gwadar in Balochistan and ending in Kashgar in western China, while passing through parts of Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces and Gilgit-Baltistan in northern Pakistan to reach the Khunjrab Pass and beyond to China.

Pakistan has prepared a plan to construct three corridors after active consultation with the Chinese authorities; these are the eastern alignment, the central alignment and the western alignment.

The eastern alignment of the corridor originates from Gwadar, travels parallel to the Makran Coastal Highway eastwards (towards Karachi), and then after passing through parts of interior Sindh, and southern, central and northern regions of Punjab, it reaches Islamabad. From Islamabad, it extends to Haripur, Abbottabad and Mansehra districts of the relatively peaceful Hazara Division in KP – this part of the corridor will also run through Muzaffarabad, the capital of Azad Jammu and Kashmir – and reaches Khunjrab after passing through Diamer and Gilgit areas in northern Pakistan. The corridor will also run through the Pamir Plateau and Karakoram mountains. A link from Taxila through Peshawar and Torkhum will connect the eastern alignment of the corridor to Jalalabad in Afghanistan Regional connectivity with India through the eastern alignment is designed to be provided through the Hyderabad-Mirpurkhas-Khokhrapar-Zero Point link and the Wagha border, Lahore.

Western alignment was the original alignment which the government says has been deferred until the eastern alignment of the corridor is completed. According to the western alignment plan, the economic corridor (highway and railway) starts from Gwadar and runs through some southern and eastern districts of Balochistan (Khuzdar and Dera Bugti, respectively), and some districts in south Punjab to reach D. I. Khan in KP. From D. I. Khan, it further extends to Islamabad and Abbottabad and from there onwards, the route is the same as in the eastern alignment. The western alignment will have an additional regional connectivity link to Afghanistan through Chaman and will connect with Iran through Quetta-Kho-e-Taftan link.

Following are the challenges for Pakistan.
Pakistan faces several challenges in the implementation of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) project. These challenges can be identified as external and internal. The Vice Director General of Policy Research Office at the International Department of the Central Committee Communist Party of China, Dr. Luan Jianzhang is of the view that political unrest, security situation and administrative issues are some of the greatest challenges in the way of successful completion of the corridor.

The construction of the corridor has been defined by many as a strategic moment such that Pakistan has assumed the position of economic pivot for the whole region. This paradigm shift in circumstances is a cause of great worry for the enemies of Pakistan both within and outside. India, Israel and the US are unhappy. For India, CPEC is a thorn in its paw. They have put their heads together to work out new strategies to block the project forward march. RAW has opened a special office in Delhi and has been allotted $300 million to disrupt CPEC. Already one can notice sudden upsurge in the acts of terror in the three restive regions and activation of certain NGOs and think tanks all trying to air misgivings and create fear psychosis.

In Pakistan, some political parties like ANP, Baloch nationalists, PkMAP raised serious objections to the CPEC project. Even PTI and JUI (F) showed inclinations to climb the bandwagon or anti-CPEC forces. Objections were being raised despite assurances by the government that this project will provide equal opportunities to all the provinces.

Security concerns have been the most critical challenge to the CPEC and both Pakistan and China have been trying to meet these. An arc of militancy stretches from Xinjiang to Gwadar consisting of groups like the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM), Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ), Daesh (ISIS), Balochistan Liberation Army (BLA), Balochistan Liberation Front (BLF) and the militant wings of some political parties. Most of these groups may not have an enmity with China itself but rather intend to attacks the Chinese interests like the CPEC as a means to deal with the Pakistani state.

Gwadar is the tail of the Silk belt, which will connect at Kashgar through different communication networks. The security of the whole corridor and Gwadar is a real concern for China. After the military operation in different parts of Pakistan, the terrorist infrastructure still exists inside and outside of the borders which will continue to pose a threat. The support of American CIA, Israeli Mossad and Indian RAW has continuously been assisting the militant groups and sub-nationalists in all the provinces to conduct subversive acts-and using terrorist elements in the whole country to threaten the Pak-Chinese plans of developing the CPEC. In the past few years, they kidnapped and killed many Chinese nationals in Pakistan despite Pakistan’s efforts to provide best possible security. The army has announced the creation of 10,000 man special force for protecting the development projects. The new force, named the Special Security Division, will comprise nine army battalion and. six wings of paramilitary forces, the Rangers and the Frontier Corps.

As an economic enterprise, for the CPEC, the greatest challenge comes from competitors. The most significant is the Iranian port of Chabahar. India intends to invest significantly ($85 million) in the development of Chabahar, which lies a few miles away from Gwadar and is part of its efforts for access to land-locked Afghanistan and Central Asia while bypassing rival Pakistan. Chabahar will effectively be a way station for energy imports coming from the Gulf region and destined for Afghanistan and Central Asia. It will also be a gateway to the Middle East, and possibly Europe, for exports originating from Afghanistan and Central Asia. While the Chabahar project has not yet been started due to the ongoing talks on the Iranian nuclear issue, the Gwadar port has already become
functional. However, there is no need for contention between these two ports. Iran has a stake in the CPEC through the proposal to link the Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline with China, which has been described as a “common interest” between the three countries.

Indian involvement in Chabahar is linked to Pakistan’s refusal to allow India access of transit to and from Afghanistan, so India sees Iran as the next-best option. If Pakistan extends transit facilities to India, and then India may not be interested in building up Chabahar. In recent years, India has been particularly active in engaging Central Asian states for the sake of pursuing energy deals. India can be easily accommodated via the CPEC itself through eastern interface in Punjab and Sindh and transformed into a stakeholder in the success of both Gwadar and the CPEC.

The dice of connectivity loaded by China has left India confused and bewildered. India is also concerned about China’s huge investment in Pakistan, particularly its recent decision to fund for China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. China is also helping Pakistan in producing plutonium at the Chinese built Kyushu reactor and will also sell eight submarines worth $5 billion, which will give a quantum jump to Pak Navy’s sea capability.

After the completion of CPEC, Pakistan may become a trade hub in the region after Gwadar Port starts functioning fully and duty-free economic zones are set up. Many Central Asian states have also expressed interest in becoming part of the corridor. This strategic partnership between Pakistan and China has upset India that openly voiced its opposition and even premier Narendra Modi pressed the president of China during his visit to Beijing to drop the plan of developing the corridor. However, China did not cave in to the pressure and vowed to push ahead with work on the project.

India is also not happy with the handing over of Gwadar Port development and its operations China. There have long been reports that Delhi is fuelling insurgency in Balochistan, which is rich in oil and gas resources, but poor law and order conditions have halted work on exploration activities there. Experts believe the India-UAE nexus will try to fail the Gwadar Port development project and create hurdles in the way of exploration activities in Balochistan.

With Chinese clout growing and Russia flexing muscles to regain control over Central Asia, India is struggling to make some headway and spread its sphere of influence in the region. Delhi has bet on Iran and Afghanistan to reach the Central Asian states via land route as Pakistan and China have control over many land links that provide access to the resource-rich region. India hopes it will be able to reach Central Asia through the Iranian port of Chabahar and build a north-south corridor that will run to Afghanistan and eventually stretch to Central Asia.

Pakistan has been playing a significant role in South Asia. After the completion of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor economic, commercial as well as geostrategic environment will improve in Pakistan. It will help Pakistan in dealing with the problems of poverty, unemployment and inequities of undeveloped provinces. During his meeting with President Xi Jinping, President Mamnoon Hussain said the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor would prove to be a game-changer in the whole region by generating massive trade and economic activity and opening new vistas of progress and prosperity for the people of the two countries and about three billion people of the region.

CPEC from all counts will prove a game changer and will make China a real stakeholder in Pakistan’s stability and security. It is a win-win situation for both. It will greatly expand the scope for the sustainable and stable development of China’s economic development. Investments by China will boost Pakistan’s $274 billion GDP by over 15 %. Corresponding progress and prosperity in Pakistan and China’s patronage will help Pakistan in getting rid of the decade old labels of ‘epicenter of terrorism’, ‘most dangerous country’ and a ‘failing state’. Pakistan enjoys a more favorable fiscal situation compared to India by reducing its budget deficit to 4.7% of GDP in 2014 (as against India’s 7%) and Pakistan is both competitive and cheaper as an emerging market. China’s economic and military assistance will help Pakistan a great deal in narrowing its ever widening gap in economic-military-nuclear fields with India and in bettering its defense potential.

Ambassador of China to Pakistan Sun Weidong while talking about the corridor said that the setting up of energy, transport, infrastructure and industrial projects under China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) would benefit all the provinces of Pakistan. He said that the CPEC was not limited to just a road but it will connect the country with a number of motorways and infrastructure projects. He explained that infrastructure projects included Gwadar port, the second phase of the upgrading project of Karakoram Highway, motorway project between Karachi and Lahore, Thakot-Havelian motorway, Gwadar port expressway, Gwadar international airport and Karachi-Sukkur motorway, adding further that the project will increase collaboration in areas of energy, finance, commerce,
banking, industry and education.

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor will help build a robust and stable economy in Pakistan and will create a significant opportunity for Pakistan to revive its industry and advance its economic interests. It will also help in overcoming the psychological barriers to flows of foreign investment from other sources. Despite its restrictive economic regime, over 150 private equity funds, foreign and domestic, are active in India, Only three or four such funds are dedicated to investing government, with the participation of the private sector, to encourage foreign direct investment in Pakistan is indispensable. Finance Minister Ishaq Dar said war phobia can also be defeated through economic development. Peace and prosperity can be achieved with economic advancement.

This project will go beyond regional ambits to bring about enormous changes not only to the national economies of the benefiting states but also to the economics of the people at the grass roots level.

CPEC is the crown jewel in the new Pakistan economic paradigm because Pakistan has the opportunity to act independently of the western influence especially the US influence as it has proved of late, an irritant factor, CPEC project will also bring an opportunity to Pakistan for normalization or ties with India, Iran and Afghanistan which will keep balance, strengthen prospects of peace and improve socio-economic status of the people of the region.

CPEC is a game changer project which will lift millions of Pakistanis out of poverty and misery. The project embraces the construction of textile garment, industrial park projects, construction of dams, the installation of nuclear reactors and creating networks of road, railway line which will generate employment and people will also take ownership of these projects. Fully equipped hospitals, technical and vocational training institutes, water supply and distribution in undeveloped areas will also improve the quality of life of people.

CPEC is not only the name of road, port and railway system but a multi-dollars mega project
which will bring peace and prosperity in all the provinces of Pakistan. The chairman of the Gwadar
port, Dostain Khan Jamaldini said that the CPEC would not only benefit Balochistan but also prove
beneficial for the country’s three other provinces.

books, education, school

Exam Preparation: Eight Study Tips

preface:

Preparing for your examination can be difficult sometimes if you are not used to studying on a regular basis. You may procrastinate and seek out different ways of not studying. But if you are reading this then it mean you are genuinely worried about your academics and your examination. So worry not because we have done our research and we will be sharing with 5 study tips which if you use, you will get maximum result.

1.Review your syllabus:

Determine when all of your tests will be held and how much of your grade will be based on them. Make a note of these dates in your calendar or planner so they don’t pass you by.

Prepare for each exam by scheduling study sessions at least a week ahead of time. Rather than trying to cram all into one mega session, you can do multiple mini-reviews ahead of time and progressively increase the amount of time you research.

 

2.Pay attention in class:

This will seem to be a no-brainer, but paying attention in class will benefit you tremendously when it comes to exam time. Don’t fall into the trap of thinking you’ll just “absorb” information; instead, take an active role in your education. It would be easier to concentrate if you sit at the front of the class.

Teachers also offer hints such as “The most important thing about this subject is…”, so pay attention.\

 

3.Take good notes:

This is better said than done, but learning how to take good notes can be highly useful when it comes to research. Make a list of all the instructor writes on the board or slides. Try to take down as much information as possible from the teacher, but don’t let taking notes distract you so much that you fail to listen.

After each lesson, go through your notes again. This will assist in the management of the situation.

 

4.Organize your study space:

Check if you have enough room to spread out your textbooks and notes. Do you have enough light? Is your chair a good fit for you? Are your computer games hidden from view?

Remove all distractions and ensure that you are as relaxed and able to concentrate as possible. For others, this may imply near-complete silence; for others, background music may be helpful. Some of us have a total need for everything.

5.Make studying a part of your habits:

It’s all too easy to think of studying as something you do at the last minute in a massive overnight cram session. Instead, consider devoting some time to studying each day. It will help you stay motivated to continue the habit if you schedule it like every other appointment or lesson.

 

6.Ask about the exam format:

Ask your instructor about the test’s structure, how it would be measured, if extra credit is available, and if they will be willing to speak to you about highlighting in your notes, the most appropriate broad subjects, and so on.

 

7.Explain your answers to others:

Exam time does not have to be an inconvenience for parents and younger siblings. Take advantage of them. To them, explain a response to a question. This will assist you in getting things straight in your head, as well as highlighting any places that you need to improve.

 

8.Organize study groups with friends:

Organize a study session with your colleagues. You may have questions for which they have answers, and they may have questions for which you have answers. This can be one of the most successful ways to challenge yourself if you make sure you remain focused on the subject for an agreed-upon period of time.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF YOUTH (A SPEECH BY QUAID-E-AZAM)

Who was Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah:

Muhammad Ali Jinnah also known as Quaid-e-Azam which means “great leader “was the founder of Pakistan. He was born on 25 December, 1876 in Karachi India (now Pakistan).

He was the leader of the All-India-Muslim League from 1913 until the foundation of Pakistan on 14th august, 1947. After the independence of Pakistan, he served as the first governor general independent Pakistan until his death.

Preview:

On March 24, 1948 addressing a special convocation of Dhaka University at Curzon Hall, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ail Jinnah gave a historic speech to the students who getting their degrees and diplomas.

 

Summary of Quaid-e-Azam’s speech:

In his convocation address to the outgoing students, the Quaid-e-Azam at first thanks the Vice Chancellor and then congratulates the students for getting diplomas degrees.

The Quaid-e-Azam tells the students that after completion of their education they are entering practical life in an independent state with heart and soul. Now they must work as a united and disciplined nation. They must develop constructive spirit rather than militant spirit.

He tells the youth that during independence the enemy mercilessly killed millions of muslins at the time of migration. It is still in search of opportunities to create more and more problems for Pakistan.

He advises them to remain vigilant in such circumstances and fail the evil designs of the enemy. He also advises them to be fair to themselves, their parents and the state and prepare themselves for the future battle of life.

The Quaid-e-Azam further tells the students that they should pay full attention to their studies. He further tells them that they should keep themselves aware of the enemies. In this way they can assist in solving the great social and economic problems of the Pakistan.

They must detect traitors among their ranks and root them out. Moreover, they must change the way of thinking about jobs. They should divert their attention from becoming government servants towards new channels and fields in private sector such as banking, commerce, law etc. that are open to them.

They should also learn skills and get technical education so that they are able to prove themselves an asset and a source of pride to their country,

Difference between Quaid-e-Azam’s ideal youth and today’s youth:

There is a huge and shocking difference between the ideal youth of Quaid-e-Azam and today’s youth.

  • The youth of today is ease loving and ignorant of economic, political and social situations of the country and the world. Whereas the ideal youth of Quaid-e-Azam was vigilant and kept themselves aware of the internal and external affairs of the state and the world.
  • The idea youth of Quaid-e-Azam develops sound sense of discipline and solid economic background whereas the youth of today lacks these qualities.

HOW TO STUDY SMART, NOT HARD

BACKGROUND:

For years students were constantly told to study and work hard. Students were are made to memorize lengthy paragraphs. Instead of understanding a particular question or a set of question, students would just memorize the given questions and understand it.

But these type of practices have been reduced to minimal. Now a days students have become smarter in regard to studing. They have adopted habits and practices which helps them in achieving their required goal in a less amount of time and at the same time understanding it to the fullest.

10 PRACTICAL STEPS:

               In this article, I will discuss with you a list of 10 practical steps which you can use to not only improve your studing but also bring about a long term change in your habits and behavior which will in turn benefit you in your tests and examination.

  1. Attend your lectures/lectures regularly:

The first step may seem difficult to most of the people reading this but it is the first practical step towards      studing smart and not hard. Attending your lectures on a regular basis provides you with an opportunity to interact with you fellow colleagues and also your class teachers.

  1. Pay attention:

When you are sitting in class and doing your best to concentrate and take in all the information that is being provided to by the teacher. A times comes usually after 15 to 20 minutes and you start to lose focus and suddenly your thinking about all the things that has nothing to do with your studies.

Some students make big mistake by not paying attention to the teacher is explaining and just keeps on writing notes.

  1. Write short notes:

Listening to the lecture and not wasting much of your time in writing notes can make a huge difference in your studies. But at the same time you will also need notes to revise the work later on. The best thing to be to write short notes. It will not consume much of your time and you will be able to pay much of your attention to what the teacher is actually is explaining.

  1. Revise your short notes:

A mistake that almost every student makes is that they spend most of their time in writing and color their notes with different markers to make it look nice beautiful. That won’t help you at all if you don’t revise the work that you have noted down later on.

  1. Make a time table:

A time table is an important tool that almost every student use to make our studing much easier. But what most of us don’t understand is that making a time table won’t help you if you don’t follow it effectively.

The most obvious reason for students who make long time tables and then not follow it is that they make it in such a way that they almost give all of their time studing and none to actually relax and have some fun or do some exercise.

My advice to you would be that the first thing to write in a time table is activities that you love doing. Don’t give all of your time to studing. Take out time to go for a walk or go to the gym and exercise.

This may not sound logical but it will help you a lot. Almost 85% of the students who make timetables and give all of their time to studing not having some fun actually end up throwing the timetable not following it for more than a week.

  1. Plan ahead of time:

Planning ahead of time gives you a huge advantage to prepare all the necessary topics for your exam.

Quickly go through your syllabus and plan ahead of time to prepare. This will give you an advantage against all the other top performing students.

  1. How to study:

From   a young age we constantly told to study but what we are not taught is how to study. Use YouTube and watch videos and documentaries and read as many books as you can to know the art of learning quick and easy.

Given video is one of my favorites on YouTube. This lecture was given by professor Marty Lobdell. Watch the whole lecture do not procrastinate throughout the lecture and do your best to pay attention and note down some of the techniques if not all.

 

You tube video

 

  1. Read books which are not related to your studies:

The heading may sound weird to you but what I mean by reading books other than your studies. I am actually talking about books that not actually helps you to become a better version of yourself.

  1. Become a teacher:

Now you might think I am crazy to actually advise to become a teacher. What I mean is that explain the lectures, topics and different questions to some student who is junior to or if not then to a friend who is studing with you.

When you study for yourself you don’t usually go into the details and just learn the things that you think might be important. But when you take the responsibility of explaining a particular topic to someone else then you actually prepare yourself for every possible scenario, since you have no idea what the person may ask you to whom you are explaining.

This will also help you to become more responsible towards your own studies and you will have an extra dose of motivation.

  1. staying positive in every difficult scenario:

It last, it all comes down to being positive and letting negative thoughts anywhere near you. I would personally suggest you to read some books that particularly tell you about staying positive not letting negative thoughts near yourself.

“You become what you think” is a powerful qoute, and it is true.

Tell yourself that you will succeed and that you will reach your goal. Start loving your subjects and your studies and you will see a huge difference in your attitude and behavior.

SUGGESTIONS:

These are some of the books that will help you to become a better version of yourself.

  1. The power of habit
  2. The power of subconscious mind
  3. The power of positive thinking
  4. The power of now

 

   
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