11. What best describes amylopectin?
A. Unbranched linear polymer with alpha 1-4 glycosidic linkages
B. Unbranched linear polymer with beta 1-4 glycosidic linkages
C. Highly branched, branched sites contain alpha 1-6 glycosidic linkages✅
D. Highly branched, branched sites contain beta 1-6 glycosidic linkages

12. Where is glycogen stored?
A. In the kidney and liver
B. In the stomach and kidney
C. In the muscle and liver✅
D. In the muscle and stomach

13. In the conversion of glucose and oxygen to carbon dioxide and water, which molecule is oxidized?
A. Oxygen
B. Carbon dioxide
C. Glucose✅
D. Water

14. NAD+ is a __________, its reduced form is _____________.
A. Electron carrier, NADPH
B. Electron carrier, NADH✅
C. Reducing agent, NAD
D. Transport protein, NADH

15. What is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration?
A. It is reduced in glycolysis as glucose is oxidized
B. It provides electrons to the ETC
C. It provides the activation energy needed for oxidation to occur
D. It is the final electron acceptor for the ETC✅
E. It combines with the carbon removed during the citric acid cycle to form carbon dioxide

16. How many molecules of carbon dioxide are generated for each molecule of acetyl CoA introduced into the citric acid cycle?
A. 1
B. 2✅
C. 3
D. 4

17. Which of the following reactions is incorrectly paired with its location?
A. ATP synthysis-inner membrane of the mitochondrion, matrix, and cytosol
B. Fermentation – cell cytosol
C. Glycolysis – cell cytosol
D. Substrate level phosphorylation – cytosol & matrix
E. Citric acid cycle – cristae of mitochondrion✅

18. Why is glycolysis considered one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved?
A. It relies on fermentation, which is characteristic of archaea & bacteria
B. It is found only in prokaryotes, whereas eukaryotes use their mitochondria to produce ATP
C. It produces much less ATP than does the electron transport chain & chemiosmosis
D. It relies totally on enzymes that are produced by free ribosomes, and bacteria have only free ribosomes and no bound ribosomes
E. It is nearly universal, is located in the cytosol, and does not involve oxygen✅

19. Cyanide is a poison that blocks the passage of electrons along the ETC. Which of the following is a metabolic effect of this poison?
A. No proton gradient would be produced, and ATP synthesis would cease✅
B. NADH supplies would be exhausted, and ATP synthesis would cease
C. Alcohol would build up in the cells
D. Electrons are passed directly to oxygen, causing cells to explode
E. The pH of the intermembrane space becomes much lower than normal

20. Account for the net production of ATP at each step of cell respiration for one molecule of glucose.
A. Glycolysis=2, citric acid cycle=2, oxidative phosphorylation=32✅
B. Glycolysis=4, citric acid cycle=2, oxidative phosphorylation=32
C. Glycolysis=2, citric acid cycle=1, oxidative phosphorylation=32
D. Glycolysis=2, citric acid cycle=2, oxidative phosphorylation=36


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