Milk is deficient in which vitamins

(A)Vitamin C (Answer)

(B) Vitamin A

(C) Vitamin B2

(D) Vitamin K

HDL is synthesized and secreted from

(A) Pancreas

(B) Liver (Answer)

(C) Kidney

(D) Muscle

Which one is the heaviest particulate component of the cell?


(B) Mitochondria

(C) Cytoplasm

(D) Golgi apparatus

The most active site of protein synthesis is the


(B) Ribosome(Answer)

(C) Mitochondrion

(D) Cell sap

The fatty acids can be transported into and out of mitochondria through

(A) Active transport

(B) Facilitated transfer (Answer)

(C) Non-facilitated transfer

(D) None of these

Which one is the largest particulate of the cytoplasm?

(A) Lysosomes

(B) Mitochondria (Answer)

(C) Golgi apparatus

(D) Entoplasmic reticulum

Mitochondrial DNA is

(A) Circular double stranded(Answer)

(B) Circular single stranded

(C) Linear double helix

(D) None of these

The average pH of Urine is

(A) 0

(B) 6.0(Answer)

(C) 8.0

(D) 5.0

The ability of the cell membrane to act as a selective barrier depends upon

(A) The lipid composition of the membrane

(B) The pores which allows small molecules

(C) The special mediated transport systems

(D) All of these(Answer)

Carrier protein can

(A) Transport only one substance

(B) Transport more than one substance

(C) Exchange one substance to another

(D) Perform all of these functions (Answer)


The Golgi complex

(A) Synthesizes proteins

(B) Produces ATP

(C) Provides a pathway for transporting chemicals

(D) Forms glycoproteins (Answer)

Genetic information of nuclear DNA is transmitted to the site of protein synthesis by

(A) rRNA

(B) mRNA

(C) tRNA

(D) Polysomes(Answer)

The following substances are cell inclusions except

(A) Melanin

(B) Glycogen

(C) Lipids

(D) Centrosome(Answer)

The power house of the cell is

(A) Nucleus

(B) Cell membrane

(C) Mitochondria(Answer)

(D) Lysosomes

The digestive enzymes of cellular compounds are confined to

(A) Lysosomes (Answer)

(B) Ribosomes

(C) Peroxisomes

(D) Polysomes

The general formula of monosaccharides is

(A) CnH2nOn(Answer)

(B) C2nH2On

(C) CnH2O2n

(D) CnH2nO2n

The aldose sugar is

(A) Glycerose(Answer)

(B) Ribulose

(C) Erythrulose

(D) Dihydoxyacetone

One of the following is not double membranous structure

(A) Mitochondrion

(B) Vacuole (Answer)

(C) Chloroplast

(D) Nucleus

Modification of proteins and lipids as glycopeptides and lipo-proteins occur in

(A) Ribosomes

(B) Golgi apparatus(Answer)


(D) All A, B and C

Detoxification of harmful drugs is the function

(B) SER(Answer)

(C) Both A and B

(D) None of the above


Cell wall consist of

(A) One main layer

(B) Two main layers

(C) Three main layers (Answer)

(D) Four main layers

In which organelle following reaction takes place 6CO2 + 6 H2O + energy (from sunlight) ———> C6H12O6 + 6 O2

(A) Mitochondrion

(B) Peroxisome

(C) Chloroplast(Answer)

(D) Glyoxysome

SER is abundant in cells that are involved in

(A) Lipid metabolism(Answer)

(B) Protein metabolism

(C) Glucose metabolism

(D) Calcium metabolism

The door to your house is like the __________________ of a cell membrane?

(A) Phospholipid bilayer (Answer)

(B) Integral protein

(C) Recognition protein

(D) Peripheral protein

Within chloroplasts, light is captured by

(A) Grana within cisternae

(B) Thylakoids within grana(Answer)

(C) Cisternae within grana

(D) Grana within thylakoids

Which of the following correctly matches an organelle with its function?

(A) Mitochondrion . . . photosynthesis

(B) Nucleus . . . cellular respiration

(C) Ribosome . . . manufacture of lipids

(D) Central vacuole . . . storage(Answer)

The microfilaments composed of

(A) Actin protein(Answer)

(B) Gelatin protein

(C) Keratin protein

(D) Tubulin protein

Which of the following would you NOT find in a bacterial cell?


(B) Cell membrane

(C) Golgi apparatus(Answer)

(D) Ribosomes

According to mosaic model by Singer and Nicholson plasma membrane is composed of

(A) Phospholipids

(B) Extrinsic proteins

(C) Intrinsic proteins

(D) All of these(Answer)

Basic solutions are also called as ____________.

(A) Proton

B) Doner

C) Alkaline(Answer)

D) Both a and b


Cell was for the first time discussed by __________________.

(A) Watson

b)  Schwann

C) Crick

D) none of these(Answer)

_______ to ________of the human body consists of water

(A) 40 to 60

B) 50 to 70

C) 65 to 75

D) 50 to 75(Answer)

It is recommended that teens drink ____ to ____ glasses of water each day.

(A) 2 to 4

B)  4 to 6

C) 6 to 8  (Answer)

D) 5 to 7

____________ of the earth’s surface is water.

(A) 70%

B)  65%

C) 75% (Answer)

D) 80%

Water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen molecules in the ratio ________.

(A) 1:2

B)  1:1

C) 2:1  (Answer)

D) none of these

An Acid is a substance which, when dissolved in water, releases___________.

(A) H+   (Answer)

B)  OH –

C) Alkaline

D) none of these

The hydrogen ion is called ___________.

(A) Electron

B) Bases

C) Proton(Answer)

D) Acids

A _______is a substance that releases OH-or hydroxyl ions when added to water.

(A) Acids

B) Bases (Answer)

C) Alkaline

D) Both b and c

Each pH unit represents a factor of _______ difference greater in [H+].

(A) 20 times

B) 10 times (Answer)

C) 30 times

D) none of these

___________ are used for the maintenance of pH.

(A) Buffer(Answer)

B) water

C) Hydrogen

D) Hydroxyl ions


If concentration of H+ is greater than 1 x 10-7 then solution is

(A) Neutral

B) basic (Answer)

C) acidic

D) aqueous

Which of the following is a non-reducing sugar?

(A) Isomaltose

(B) Maltose

(C) Lactose

(D) Trehalose (Answer)

Which of the following is a reducing sugar?

(A) Sucrose

(B) Trehalose

(C) Isomaltose(Answer)

(D) Agar

The sugar found in DNA is

(A) Xylose

(B) Ribose

(C) Deoxyribose(Answer)

(D) Ribulose

The sugar found in milk is

(A) Galactose

(B) Glucose

(C) Fructose

(D) Lactose(Answer)

Sucrose consists of

(A) Glucose + glucose

(B) Glucose + fructose(Answer)

The constituent unit of insulin is

(A) Glucose

(B) Fructose(Answer)

(C) Mannose

(D) Galactose

Starch is a

(A) Polysaccharide(Answer)

(B) Monosaccharide

(C) Disaccharide

(D) None of these

Worldwide, the most common vitamin deficiency is that of

(A) Ascorbic acid

(B) Folic acid (Answer)

(C) Vitamin A

(D) Vitamin D

Bence-Jones protein precipitates at

(A) 20°–40° C

(B) 40–-60° C (Answer)

(C) 60°–80° C

(D) 80°–100° C


All proteins contain the

(A) Same 20 amino acids(Answer)

(B) Different amino acids

(C) 300 Amino acids occurring in nature

(D) Only a few amino acids

The optically inactive amino acid is

(A) Glycine


(B) Serine

(C) Threonine

(D) Valine

The functions of plasma albumin are

(A) Osmosis(Answer)

(B) Transport

(C) Immunity

(D) both (A )and (B)

An essential amino acid in man is

(A) Aspartate

(B) Tyrosine

(C) Methionine (Answer)

(D) Serine

Non essential amino acids

(A) Are not components of tissue proteins

(B) May be synthesized in the body from essential amino acids (Answer)

(C) Have no role in the metabolism

(D) May be synthesized in the body in diseased states

Which one of the following is semiessential amino acid for humans?

(A) Valine

(B) Arginine(Answer)

(C) Lysine

(D) Tyrosine

An example of polar amino acid is

(A) Alanine

(B) Leucine

(C) Arginine(Answer)

(D) Valine

A ketogenic amino acid is

(A) Valine

(B) Cysteine

(C) Leucine(Answer)

(D) Threonine

After releasing O2 at the tissues, hemoglobin transports

(A) CO2 and protons to the lungs (Answer)

(B) O2 to the lungs

(C) CO2 and protons to the tissue

(D) Nutrients

The protein present in hair is

(A) Keratin(Answer)

(B) Elastin

(C) Myosin

(D) Tropocollagen


Net protein utilisation of egg protein is

(A) 75%

(B) 80%

(C) 91%(Answer)

(D) 72%

Net protein utilization of milk protein is

(A) 75%(Answer)

(B) 80%

(C) 86%

(D) 91%

Pulses are rich in

(A) Lysine (Answer)

(B) Methionine

(C) Tryptophan

(D) Phenylalanine

Milk is deficient in

(A) Vitamin B1

(B) Vitamin B2

(C) Sodium(Answer)

(D) Potassium

An example of a hydroxy fatty acid is

(A) Ricinoleic acid (Answer)

(B) Crotonic acid

(C) Butyric acid

(D) Oleic acid

An example of a saturated fatty acid is

(A) Palmitic acid (Answer)

(B) Oleic acid

(C) Linoleic acid

(D) Erucic acid

The number of double bonds in arachidonic acid is

(A) 1

(B) 2

(C) 4(Answer)

(D) 6

Dietary fats after absorption appear in the circulation as




(D) Chylomicron(Answer)

The deficiency of both energy and protein causes

(A) Marasmus(Answer)

(B) Kwashiorkar

(C) Diabetes

(D) Beri-beri

Kwashiorkar is characterized by

(A) Night blindness

(B) Edema(Answer)

(C) Easy fracturability

(D) Xerophthalmia


1. Glucosomes helps in
a) Fat synthesis
b) Glucose synthesis✅
c) Starch
d) Carbohydrates

2. Myofibril helps in
a) Muscular contraction✅
b) Ligamentus contraction
c) Both a & b
d) None

3. Ribosomes helps in
a) Translation of RNA into protein✅
b) Translation of DNA into protein
c) Conversion of fats into acids
d) None

4. Peroxisomes
a) Breakdown of hydrogen peroxide✅
b) Formation of hydrogen peroxide
c) Breakdown of hydrogen dioxide
d) Formation of hydrogen dioxide

5. Glyoxysomes helps in
a) Conversion of sugar into fats
b) Conversion of fats into sugar✅
c) Conversion of acids into bases
d) Conversion of bases into acids

6. Carboxysomes helps in
a) Carbon fixation✅
b) Oxygen fixation
c) Carbon monoxide fixation
d) None

7. Plasmid is
a) Circular RNA
b) Spring shape DNA
c) Circular DNA✅
d) Both b & c

8. Types of protein
a) Fibrous
b) Globular
c) Membrane
d) All of them✅

9. Structure types of membrane proteins
a) Beta barrels
b) Helix bundles
c) Both a & b✅
d) none

10. examples of environmental stimuli
a) photon hitting cells in retina of eye
b) odorants binding to odorant receptors in nose
c) both a & b✅
d) none


11. types of second messenger are
a) hydrophilic
b) hydrophobic
c) gases
d) all of these✅
12. examples of extra cellular receptors
a) G protein coupled receptors
b) Receptor tyrosine kinase
c) Integrin
d) All✅

13. Types of intra cellular receptors
a) Nuclear receptors
b) Cytoplasmic receptors
c) Both a & b✅
d) Mitochondrial receptors

14. G protein coupled receptors have
a) Protein+ G protein (G alpha, G beta ,G gamma)✅
b) G protein
c) G protein (alpha , beta)
d) G protein (alpha, beta, gamma)

15. Receptor tyrosin kinase is
a) Transmembrane protein
b) Transmembrane protein & have 2 domains✅
c) Transmembrane and have 1 domain
d) 2 domains only

16. Weak acid and bases
a) Only partially ionizes✅
b) Completely ionizes
c) May or may not
d) All

17. PH is
a) Potency of hydrogen ion concentration✅
b) Potency of OH ion concentration
c) Both
d) None

18. PH + POH=
a) 14✅
b) 15
c) 20
d) 21

19. Acid dissociation constant
a) Ka ✅
b) Kw
c) Kc
d) Pk

20. Kw is
a) Equilibrium constant of water✅
b) Acid dissociation constant
c) Base dissociation constant
d) None


21. PH+POH=14
a) 9+5=14
b) 8+6=14
c) 7+7=14✅
d) 10+4=14

22. Buffers
a) resist changes in pH from the addition of acid or base
b) resist changes in pH from the addition of acid or base
c) resist changes in pH from the addition of acid or base
d) all✅

23. components of buffer are
a) acid–base conjugate pairs
b) can be a weak acid and a salt of its conjugate base
c) can also be a weak base and a salt of its conjugate acid
d) all✅

24. Does each of the following combinations produce a buffer solution or not
a) . HCl and KCl
b) H2CO3 and NaHCO3✅
c) H3PO4 and NaCl
d) HC2H3O2 and KC2H3O2

1. What are short polypeptides called?
A. Primary structures
B. Secondary structures
C. Polypeptides
D. Oligopeptides✅

2. What is comprised of alpha-helices or parallel or antiparallel beta-pleated sheets?
A. Primary structures
B. Secondary structures✅
C. Both A and B
D. None of the above

3. At what amino acids can beta-turns occur?
A. Glycine and alanine
B. Glycine and proline✅
C. Glutamate and proline
D. Glutamate and alanine

4. Where can disulfide covalent linkages occur between adjacent alpha-helices?
A. In keratin
B. In the major protein of hair
C. In nails
D. All of the above✅

5. Which of the following is a incomplete dietary protein found in connective tissues?
A. Collagen✅
B. Keratin
C. RNase A
D. All of the above

6. What is the cause of scurvy?
A. Not being exposed to enough sunlight
B. Misfolding protiens
C. Defective collagen✅ formation
D. All of the above

7. Fats and oils are also known as _______?
A. Polypeptides
B. Polymers
C. Tripeptides
D. Triglycerides✅
E. Trisaccharides

8. What is the relationship between glucose, mannose and galactose?
A. They are isomers
B. They are epimers✅
C. They are ketoses
D. No relationship exists

9. What is used to identify reducing sugars and in the past was used to test for diabetes mellitus?
A. Benedict’s test✅
B. N-glycosylation
C. O-glycosylation
D. None of the above

10. What best describes amylose?
A. Unbranched linear polymer with alpha 1-4 glycosidic linkages✅
B. Unbranched linear polymer with beta 1-4 glycosidic linkages
C. Highly branched, branched sites contain alpha 1-6 glycosidic linkages
D. Highly branched, branched sites contain beta 1-6 glycosidic linkages


11. What best describes amylopectin?
A. Unbranched linear polymer with alpha 1-4 glycosidic linkages
B. Unbranched linear polymer with beta 1-4 glycosidic linkages
C. Highly branched, branched sites contain alpha 1-6 glycosidic linkages✅
D. Highly branched, branched sites contain beta 1-6 glycosidic linkages

12. Where is glycogen stored?
A. In the kidney and liver
B. In the stomach and kidney
C. In the muscle and liver✅
D. In the muscle and stomach

13. In the conversion of glucose and oxygen to carbon dioxide and water, which molecule is oxidized?
A. Oxygen
B. Carbon dioxide
C. Glucose✅
D. Water

14. NAD+ is a __________, its reduced form is _____________.
A. Electron carrier, NADPH
B. Electron carrier, NADH✅
C. Reducing agent, NAD
D. Transport protein, NADH

15. What is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration?
A. It is reduced in glycolysis as glucose is oxidized
B. It provides electrons to the ETC
C. It provides the activation energy needed for oxidation to occur
D. It is the final electron acceptor for the ETC✅
E. It combines with the carbon removed during the citric acid cycle to form carbon dioxide

16. How many molecules of carbon dioxide are generated for each molecule of acetyl CoA introduced into the citric acid cycle?
A. 1
B. 2✅
C. 3
D. 4

17. Which of the following reactions is incorrectly paired with its location?
A. ATP synthysis-inner membrane of the mitochondrion, matrix, and cytosol
B. Fermentation – cell cytosol
C. Glycolysis – cell cytosol
D. Substrate level phosphorylation – cytosol & matrix
E. Citric acid cycle – cristae of mitochondrion✅

18. Why is glycolysis considered one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved?
A. It relies on fermentation, which is characteristic of archaea & bacteria
B. It is found only in prokaryotes, whereas eukaryotes use their mitochondria to produce ATP
C. It produces much less ATP than does the electron transport chain & chemiosmosis
D. It relies totally on enzymes that are produced by free ribosomes, and bacteria have only free ribosomes and no bound ribosomes
E. It is nearly universal, is located in the cytosol, and does not involve oxygen✅

19. Cyanide is a poison that blocks the passage of electrons along the ETC. Which of the following is a metabolic effect of this poison?
A. No proton gradient would be produced, and ATP synthesis would cease✅
B. NADH supplies would be exhausted, and ATP synthesis would cease
C. Alcohol would build up in the cells
D. Electrons are passed directly to oxygen, causing cells to explode
E. The pH of the intermembrane space becomes much lower than normal

20. Account for the net production of ATP at each step of cell respiration for one molecule of glucose.
A. Glycolysis=2, citric acid cycle=2, oxidative phosphorylation=32✅
B. Glycolysis=4, citric acid cycle=2, oxidative phosphorylation=32
C. Glycolysis=2, citric acid cycle=1, oxidative phosphorylation=32
D. Glycolysis=2, citric acid cycle=2, oxidative phosphorylation=36